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Communicable Diseases

 

The District medical advisor and the local health authority, in consultation with the person responsible for the school health program and the student's doctor, shall determine whether a significant risk of transmitting a chronic reportable disease exists. If it is determined that a significant risk of transmission exists, the student may be temporarily removed from the classroom until one of the following events occurs:

1. An appropriate school program adjustment is made.
2. An appropriate alternative or special education program is established.
3. The local health authority determines that the significant risk has abated and the student can return to class.

School Nurses are Required to Report Certain Illness/Disease

The school nurse or principal shall report to the local health authority those children attending school who are suspected of having a reportable disease or condition, as defined by state law and the Texas Board of Health. If there is no local health authority appointed or if the District is outside the jurisdiction of a local health authority, the report shall be made to the regional director.
25 TAC 97.2 (B), 97.4: Health and Safety Code 81.041, 81.042

Exclusion

The principal shall exclude from attendance any student suffering from a reportable disease, as defined by the Texas Board of Health, until one of the criteria for readmittance is fulfilled. 25 TAC 97.5 (A), 97.4

Readmittance

 

Students excluded for reason of communicable disease shall be readmitted by one or more of the following methods, as determined by the local health authority:

1. Certificate of the attending physician attesting to their recovery and noninfectiousness.
2. Permit for readmission issued by the local health authority.
3. After a period of time corresponding to the duration of the communicability of the disease.

Removal to Restricted Environment

Infected students who are determined to lack control of bodily fluids or who display behavior determined to be a risk to others, infected students who have skin lesions which cannot be properly covered, require a more restricted environment and shall be removed from the classroom. The above determinations will be made on a case-by-case basis by a team of educational and health professionals appointed by the Superintendent or an Admissions, Review and Dismissal Committee, whichever is appropriate

Chronic Reportable Diseases

Unless otherwise provided below, a student with a chronic reportable disease (Hansen's disease, viral hepatitis type B, AIDS or HIV infection) shall be allowed to attend school in his or her usual instructional setting with the approval of his or her doctor. The District employee responsible for the school health program shall function as the liaison with the student's doctor and be the coordinator of services provided by the other staff.

The tabs above are intended to provide general information about common childhood conditions and are not intended as medical advice. 
ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM - Fifth disease; "slapped cheek" disease; Academy rash

General Information: Erythema infectiosum is a common disease of school children characterized by a red rash on the cheeks followed by a lacy rash on the arms and legs. It usually causes very little illness although adolescents sometimes have mild joint pains or swelling.

Most adults who get Fifth disease develop just a mild pinkness of the cheeks or no rash at all. Adults develop joint pains, especially in the knees, more often than a rash. These pains may last 1 to
3 months.

The Illness: The disease is caused by parvovirusB19. It is spread by direct contact with infected mucus from the nose or mouth or by inhaling droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. Illness starts from 4 to 18 days after exposure. Because of the close and prolonged contact between students, epidemics of fifth disease are common in primary schools and academies.Fifth disease rash sometimes begins with no illness at all but usually starts with 3 or 4 days of low grade fever and symptoms of a mild cold. This is followed in 7 to 10 days by the appearance of a bright red, raised rash, which covers the cheeks, making them look as if they had been slapped. The area around the mouth is usually not involved.

  • After another 1 to 3 days a pink, blotchy and often itchy rash appears on the upper part of the arms and legs, spreading to the trunk and buttocks. As it fades, the rash develops a "lace-like" or "net-like" appearance, which can last for 5 to 10 days. Once cleared, it may reappear for several weeks or months if the skin becomes flushed from exercise, sunlight or a warm bath.
  • Young adults with parvovirus infection can have mild joint pains and swelling (arthritis), often without a rash. The hands, knees and wrists are most commonly affected. Discomfort lasts from a few days to several months. There is no permanent joint damage.

There are no complications from infection in a normal child. Children with blood problems such as sickle cell disease and those with certain cancers or on chemotherapy can develop severe anemia, usually without a rash. Infection in pregnant women can cause spontaneous abortion or anemia in the unborn baby.

Treatment: Most children with erythema infectiosum do not need medication or a change in diet.

Contagion: The disease remains contagious from 2 weeks to 3 days before appearance of the rash (or joint pains). Children usually feel perfectly well or have only a mild illness at this time and continue to play with other children. Thus, little can be done to stop the spread of this infection.

Children are no longer contagious and do not need to be excluded from school once the rash occurs.

Call your doctor about Fifth disease if:

  • The rash becomes itchy
  • Your child develops a fever over 101 degrees F (38.4 degrees C)
  • You feel your child is getting worse.
  • You have other questions or concerns.

 

Fifth Disease Information (Spanish)

Lice

Head lice are so easily spread that anyone can get them. 6 to 12 million: people will get lice each year. Most of these will be children. There is no shame because your child has head lice. Head lice are not known to transmit disease, they are just itching and annoyance.

What Are Lice?
Lice are tiny wingless bugs the size of a small seed. Nits (lice eggs) are tiny, yellowish eggs glued to the hairs by a type of insect super glue. Lice have pointed heads and three pairs of claw-like legs. Lice are grayish in color but can be red/brown when feeding. Nits are found on the hairs of the head, mainly behind the ears and on back of the neck.

The Life of a Louse
When a female louse crawls on a person's head she begins laying eggs (nits). The female louse will start laying as many as 6 eggs per day. The female louse will live on a person for about 20-30 days. A single female louse can lay as many as 300 eggs in her lifetime. Nits hatch in 7-10 days. They become adults in two weeks. Lice can live for 2 to 4 days off the head at room temperature.

 

Remedies
Home remedies do little to get rid of lice. There are several brands of lice shampoo that you can buy at the store, as well as brands that need a prescription. Talk with your own medical provider or the county health department for assistance. Shampooing the hair alone will not get rid of lice! You must also remove the nits, and clean the areas of the louse where the lice may be present.
Cutting your child's hair or regular shampoo does little to treat lice. Clothing, bedding and household items must be cleaned to kill and remove all of the lice. Other family members need to be checked for lice, and treated if necessary.

 

KIDS

  • Do not share combs and brushes
  • Do not trade hats, hair ribbons, coats or sweaters
  • Do not share or trade any other clothes
  • Do bathe and shampoo your hair often
  • Do wash your combs and brushes often


PARENTS

  • Do inspect your child’s head often – especially before and after a group activity such as a slumber party or camp.
  • Do notify all contacts if you should discover that your child has head lice.


TREATMENT
1. Everyone in the family with lice or nits must be treated with a special lice shampoo.
Check with your physician or pharmacist for an effective product. Follow package
directions carefully. 

Your Daily Checklist



DAY ONE:
1. Apply medicated Shampoo (and conditioner, if needed.)
2. Check all family members for lice or eggs. Treat if needed.
A 50- 50 mixture vinegar and water rinse will help in nit removal. Remove dead lice and eggs with lice comb or pick out with fingernails.
3. Wash clothing, (especially hats and caps) towels, sheets, etc., in hot water (1308). Dry on "high" for at least 20 minutes. Things that can't be washed and dried such as stuffed animals, coats, pillows, and blankets should be:
  • Placed in a hot dryer for 20 minutes,
  • Put in a sealed plastic bag and place in the freezer overnight, or
  • Left in a cool, dry place for 2 weeks
4. Vacuum carpet, mattresses and upholstery as well as floor. Remove vacuum bag and dispose outside when done.

5. Soak all combs and brushes in hot water (1308) with small amount of insecticide or bleach added for 10 minutes to kill any lice.
Animals do not carry human lice, so family pets do not need to be treated.
6. Vacuum daily.

7. Repeat shampoo if recommended based on brand differences, usually day 7 or http://schools.dickinsonisd.org/page/10. Treat anyone if new lice are seen.

8. Remove all lice or eggs that are seen.

NEXT 2 TO 3 WEEKS:
Keep checking all family members for new lice or eggs.

Head lice can happen to anyone. With everyone working together we can reduce the incidence of lice infestations in our children. Early in the fall a positive lice prevention program will be initiated, educating students, staff and parents about head lice.

TREATMENT


1. Everyone in the family with lice or nits must be treated with a special lice shampoo.


2. Check with your physician or pharmacist for an effective product. Follow package
directions carefully.

3. If you need financial assistance for lice treatment, please contact the district social workers: Jamie Harbuck or JoEllen Allen

General Guidelines;

  1. A pediculosis (lice) fact sheet can be sent home to all elementary parents requesting that they check their children often for head lice throughout the year.
  2. A lice information brochure can be sent home at the nurse's discretion.
  3. The school nurse will determine if a child has head lice and/or nits.
    1. If live lice and/or nits are found, the student will be excluded immediately.
    2. Before a child can be re-admitted to school they must be checked by the school nurse.
  4. *The treatment process and how to clean the environment will be thoroughly explained to parents.
  5. If several children are found with head lice in a school, form letter may be sent home if the principal and school nurse deem that it would be beneficial.
  6. Head checks will be conducted as deemed necessary.

SCABIES - A SKIN DISEASE CAUSED BY AN ALMOST INVISIBLE ORGANISM, THE "ITCH MITE" (SARCOPTES scabiei). Crowded conditions and/or poor hygiene make it very easy for the mite to grow and spread.

HOW DO YOU GET SCABIES?
Scabies can be acquired very easily because it is a highly contagious condition. Scabies often spreads among school children quite rapidly, due to their close contact. In addition, family members, roommates and sexual partners are all candidates for spread of an infestation.
Usually scabies spreads by direct contact with another person who is infested. Even handholding games among children, or simply shaking hands, can result in scabies being transmitted from one individual to another. Exchanging clothing or sharing a bed or towels is also a means of spreading scabies. The scabies mite does not "jump" from one person to another and does not survive more than 3-4 days without skin contact.

 

WHAT HAPPENS?
The male and female mite mate on the skin surface. Then, the female burrows into the outermost layer of skin where she lays one to three eggs daily. In a few days the eggs hatch, and the larvae travel to the surface of the skin. The larvae become mites, and the cycle begins again.

The male mite dies after mating; the female dies after her egg-laying is completed, usually five weeks after reaching adulthood.

It is extremely difficult to see the female mite without the aid of a magnifying glass (length is 1/60 of an inch). The male is slightly smaller. However, linear zigzag burrows just below the surface of the skin are often visible to the naked eye. Usually, a grayish-white thread on the surface of the skin marks her trail. If your doctor suspects scabies, he/she will look for these characteristic trails in the spaces between the fingers, the back of the hands, elbows, armpits, breasts, groin, penis, along the belt line, on the back or the buttocks.

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF SCABIES?
The only way to find out if you have scabies is to see your doctor. A red, itchy rash, typical of scabies, is very common in other skin disorders, too. Your doctor can tell precisely what causes the rash. If it looks like scabies, he/she may want to confirm the diagnosis by scraping a few tiny specks of skin from the itchy area and examine under a microscope.

If this is your first case of scabies, it may have taken four to six weeks from the time you contracted scabies for the symptoms to emerge. There will probably be intense itching, particularly at night.

IS THERE A CURE?
Treatment is effective and easy if you follow your doctor's instructions. Treatment is so effective that scabies is almost always gone within 24 hours. However, the itch may last as long as two to three weeks.

CAN YOU GET SCABIES AGAIN?
Yes. With a second infestation the symptoms show up much faster. The itching may start within a few hours after contracting the mites. However, you should see your doctor for a proper diagnosis, as the rash may be cause by something else.

Good personal hygiene is essential. Wash hands often, shampoo hair frequently, wear clean clothes daily and don't exchange clothes or towels with others. Also, if one member in the household has scabies, the doctor may recommend treatment of all family members.

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